Adaptec
 
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ACB-2072 XT to RLL Installation Guide

PC'S AND DRIVES SUPPORTED BY THE ACB-2072

The Adaptec ACB-2072 controller board has been successfully tested in several personal computers including, but not limited to the following:

  • IBM PC
  • IBM XT
  • IBM PERSONAL SYSTEM/2 MODEL 30
  • COMPAQ PORTABLE 1
  • COMPAQ DESKPRO 1
  • COMPAQ 286 PORTABLE 1
  • COMPAQ 286 DESKPRO 1
  • AT&T PC 6300 2
  • LEADING EDGE 2
  • SANYO

Notes:

  1. Compaq format utility requires 17 sectors/track and thus will not function with the ACB-2072. To format, use the IBM PC-DOS or Microsoft MS-DOS format utility.
  2. Requires AT&T motherboard ROMS version 1.21 with revision 1.36, the switch block 1 (located on the motherboard closest to the back of the unit) must be in the "off" position.

    The Adaptec ACB-2072 controller board has been successfully tested with drives from the companies listed below. Contact the drive vendor to verify current models and revision levels supporting 2,7 RLL.

Vendor Telephone Number
Fujitsu 408-946-8777
Lapine 408-262-7077
Microscience 415-961-2212
Microstorage 408-986-0770
Miniscribe 303-678-2122
Okidata 609-235-2600
Priam 408-346-4600
PTI (Peripheral Technology) 415-724-1486
Ricoh 408-424-6700
Rodime 408-725-0222
Seagate 408-438-6550
Syquest 415-490-7511
Tandon 805-523-0340
Toshiba 408-727-3939
 

Contact drive vendor for exact revision of drive. Adaptec will not accept returned material of ACB-2072's if running on drives not approved by the drive vendor.

Some drives format to greater than 64 MB and require a partitioning I/O driver to get the full capacity. Such a driver is available from Ontrack Computer System, (612) 941-4504.

HARDARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

The ACB-2072 can be installed in any IBM PC/XT or equivalent IBM- compatible computer. The successful installation of the Adaptec ACB-2072 requires the following hardware and software.

HARDWARE

  1. IBM PC, XT or Personal System/2, Model 30 or equivalent IBM compatible computer with:
    One floppy diskette drive.
    One available system expansion slot.
    Room for one 5 1/4" or 3 1/2" Winchester (hard) disk drive.
  2. 5 1/4" or 3 1/2" Winchester disk drive(s) having the industry standard ST412/506 interface and qualified for RLL encoding.
  3. External power supply or power booster to support the power required by the Winchester disk drive. If using an IBM XT or a very low power drive in the IBM PC, this is not required.
  4. 20-pin and 24-pin flat ribbon cables to connect the drive to the controller.

SOFTWARE

  1. IBM PC/XT DOS version 3.3 or newer revisions.
  2. (Optional) A customer-supplied loadable device driver is needed for three to eight logical units or for systems using more than 64 MB of total disk capacity.

INTEGRATION INTO THE SYSTEM

To install the Adaptec ACB-2072 board into your system you must first configure the drive(s), set the controller jumpers and connect the drive cables properly. This section describes all the necessary steps needed to successfully install this hardware.

The controller must match the drive parameters, i.e., number of heads, number of cylinders, step pulse rate, etc. in order to function successfully. The drive parameters are divided into two categories; one being the drive-changeable parameters and two, the controller-changeable parameters.

DRIVE SELECTION AND TERMINATION

The drive-changeable parameters are the drive selection switches (or jumpers) and the drive termination. These parameters allow a drive to be selected as drive 0, 1, 2, or 3. This is accomplished by changing the drive address selection switches or jumpers.

Before the drives can be cabled to the controller, the drive cable terminator must be properly set. The termination, as its name implies, must be at the end of each cable in order to have the controller and the drive communicate properly. The controller has a permanent built-in terminator. The disk drives, since they can be connected in a daisy chain configuration, have a removable terminator. This is usually a 16-pin DIP resistor package. This last physical drive in the chain must have its' terminator installed.

CONTROLLER JUMPER SELECTION

The controller-changeable parameters are defined as the variables that can be changed to accommodate characteristics of different drives. These parameters can easily be changed by jumpers(s) or defined by the user for the drive being used.

DRIVE TABLE SELECTION JUMPERS

The ACB-2072 has drive tables for the most commonly used drives. These tables reside in the Adaptec ACB-2072 BIOS EPROM.

The drive tables in the ACB-2072 BIOS support the drives as defined in Table 1. (See Below) These drive tables are selected by jumpers on the board. Other drives can be attached to the ACB-2072 by use of the user-defined parameters described in the software installation section.

Note:

The ACB-2072 is shipped already configured to be used with a 30 MB RLL drive (4 heads, 615 cylinders). (See BIOS Table 0 of Table 1).

TABLE 1

ACB-2072 DEFAULT DRIVE TABLES
FEATURES BIOS TABLE 0 BIOS TABLE 1 BIOS TABLE 2 BIOS TABLE 3
Formatted RLL Capacity 30 MB 15 MB 60 MB 20 MB
Step Pulse 3 3 3 3
Code (Rate) 13(usec) 13(usec) 13(usec) 13(usec)
Number of Data Heads 4 2 5 4
Number of Cylinders 612 612 981 615

These four tables are selected by jumpers M-N, O-P for drive 0 and Q-R, S-T, for drive 1. Table 2 defines the jumper selection of each drive and table.

TABLE 2

JUMPER SELECTON OF DRIVE TABLES

BIOS Table for Drive 0 Installed Removed
0 M-N,AND O-P -
1 M-N O-P
2 O-P M-N
3 - M-N AND O-P
 
BIOS Table for Drive 1 Installed Removed
0 Q-R AND S-T -
1 Q-R S-T
2 S-T Q-R
3 - Q-R AND S-T

NOTE:

No need to worry about these jumpers if the format parameters are specified in primary format section.

TABLE 3A

HIGH-PERFORMANCE JUMPERS

JUMPER A-B Installed=Drive 0 is Syquest
JUMPER C-D Installed=Drive 1 is Syquest
JUMPER E-F Reserved
JUMPER G-H Reserved
JUMPER I-J Reserved
JUMPER K-L Installed=Self Diagnostics Enabled
JUMPER BD Installed=BIOS Disabled
JUMPER 324 Installed=Alternate Address

TABLE 3B

JUMPERS W-X AND U-V

No Jumpers Address C800
U-V Only Address CA00
W-X Only Address F400
U-V and W-X Address CC00
 

DRIVE AND CONTROLLER CABLING

The controller has three cable connectors: J1, J2 and J3. Connect J2 to drive 0 and J3 to drive 1. J1 should be connected to both drives with a daisy chain cable.

The connector locations and pin orientation for ACB-2072 connectors are shown in Figure 1. The location of pin 1 can be read off the controller board for each connector.

NOTE:

The two connectors J1 and J2, along the outside edge of the board are used when only one drive is present. All three connectors J1, J2 and J3 are used when two drives are present. Remember that the last physical drive in the chain must have the terminator installed.

Mount the drive, controller and cables inside the PC.

ACB-2072 PRIMARY FORMATTER

At this point, the disk must be formatted with a primary format. Primary formatting is not supported by DOS; however, it is supported by the ACB-2072 BIOS through "DEBUG". Unlike other controllers, the ACB-2072 needs no extra software to perform primary formatting. The primary format defines address fields and data fields on each track of the disk. After this is completed, bad blocks can be flagged and a directory created by a DOS "FORMAT" command.

The drive parameters, i.e., answers to all questions, can be entered by a DOS redirected I/O file. This will ease integration of drive and controller in a manufacturing environment.

To use the primary formatter, perform the following steps:

  1. Boot DOS 3.3 or newer revisions from the DOS SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAMS diskette.
  2. Type "DEBUG", the computer will respond with a "-".

    NOTE:

    Underlined characters are user inputs, (RET) stands for return key and parentheses represents comments.

    A>DEBUG (RET)
    -(DEBUG prompt)
  3. Type the following sequence:
    -G=C800:CCC

ADAPTEC ACB-2072 FORMAT PROGRAM

Enter sector interleave (2 to 8): n (RET)

3-to-1 is the optimum interleave factor for the IBM PC/XT. Experimentation with different interleave factors is the best way to determining the optimum interleaving factor for your application. 3-to-1 is the fastest interleave for 2,7 RLL (7.5 Megabits/second) that the IBM PC/XT can accept.

Enter Drive ID (0/1:0 or 1 (RET)

This value specifies which physical drive is to be formatted. It follows the hardware switch setting on the drives.

Should we use the default parameters (Y/N) Y or N (RET)
The default parameters refer to the current drive table selected by the jumpers for the drive (0 or 1), see Tables 1 and 2. You have two choices: "Y" for jumper default drive parameters or "N" for user-defined drive parameters.

JUMPER DEFAULT DRIVE PARAMETERS

("T" RESPONSE) A "Y" will invoke the user-defined drive parameters feature described below and will ignore the jumper default drive table selection.

NOTE:

The following parameters are for the MiniScribe 3438 drive or other drives with 4 heads and 615 cylinders and are shown for example only. Insert your drive parameters in the place of these. The Adaptec ACB-2072 controller board allows you to go from 16 MB to 64 MB with no special software.

NOTE:

Enter all values in decimal.

Number of logical units for this drive (1-8): M (RET)
The ACB-2072 allows you to partition a single physical drive into many equal logical units. The units can be up to 32MB each (a restriction of the DOS format) having a maximum of eight units for one or two physical drives. In the example for the MiniScribe 3438 drive, if M=2, the 30 MB physical drive will be divided into two equal logical units of 15 MB each.

Step pulse rate (0 to 7):3 (RET)

The step pulse rate is defined in Table 4. Many drives that are currently available will provide high performance, i.e., lower access times, when used with option 3. If a slower nonbuffered step rate drive is used, option 0 is required. Refer to the Disk Drive OEM Manual for the fastest buffered seek step rate.

TABLE 4

SEEK STEP PULSE RATES

CODE SEEK STEP PULSE RATE
0 3.0 Milliseconds
1 Reserved
2 30 Microseconds
3 13 Microseconds
4 200 Microseconds
5 70 Microseconds
6 Reserved
7 Reserved

Number of heads (1-16):4 (RET)
Number of cylinders: 615 (RET)

For other disk drives see the Disk Drive OEM Manual for these values. In this case, the drive has four data heads and 615 cylinders. Minimum value of cylinders=1, maximum = 2048.

The following prompts allow the user to specify the method of entering a defect list, it may put in a separate file or entered from the keyboard.

Specify the Defect Byte Offset encoding: MFM or RLL
(M/R)? M or R (RET)

All drive manufacturers give a list of defective areas on the drive disk. This defect list gives the location of defects in one of two forms. One form is cylinder, head and byte offset. Normally the byte offset is given in MFM encoding. Many drive vendors are also giving the byte offset in RLL encoding. Either MFM or RLL encoding can be used. If MFM is used, the controller multiplies by 1.5 to determine the RLL equivalent defect.

If no defect list is available, press "M" then "C" and two (RET)'s. The controller will flag defects that it finds during track verification in data and ID fields. This does not guarantee that all defects will be detected and mapped. Drive manufacturers do more rigorous analog and temperature testing to create their defect lists.

Enter defect list as "Cyl/Head/Byte" or "Head/Cyl/Byte"
(C or H): C or H (RET)
Type defect file name or press Enter:

Enter the defect list in the format selected above, i.e., cyl/head/byte or head/cyl/byte. The cylinder, head and byte offset are separated by "/" marks. For example, 31/2/4054 means cylinder 31 head 2 and 4054 bytes offset.

The defect list may reside in a DOS file or be inputted from the keyboard. If a DOS file is used, enter its' name here. The DOS file is entered by a carriage return as shown below. The file name must have an extenson.(e.g., DRIVE.DEF)

If entering from the keyboard, press (RET) and then following will be shown:
Enter defect locations as Cyl/Head/Byte (or Head/Cyl/Byte) (a blank line will end the list):

For example:
31/2/4054 (RET)
257/4/2253 (RET)
541/3/3415 (RET)

Are the above parameters correct (Y/N)? Y or N

An "N" will return to the beginning of the format program. When "Y" is selected, the following will be shown:

FORMATTING DRIVE.....

The drive is now being formatted. When finished, the track verification begins, this takes approximately 40 seconds per Megabyte.

The track verification takes longer than most controllers. The reason for this is that an extensive check is being made using "worse" case data patterns.

During track verification the following will be shown:
Verifying Format in Logical Unit 0....
Cylinder XXXXXX
Verifying Format is Logical Unit X.....
Cylinder XXXXXX
Format Completed....
Run this Program Again (Y/N)? Y or N

Now the primary format is complete. If needed, rerun the format for drive 1. When finished, answer 'N' to return to the DOS>A prompt and continue. If defects occuring during format, the following text will appear on the screen:

Mapping Defects....
Reformatting Track - Cylinder XXXX, Head XX, Sector XX
(When 27 sectors are used)
Formatting ALT Track - Cylinder 611, Head 3
(When alternate track is assigned)

NOTE:

Alternate tracks have reduced the total drive capacity.
Verifying Format is Logical Unit X...
*Verify Error - Logical Unit X, Cylinder XXXX, Head XX,
Sector XX.
Controller Error Code: 91, BIOS Error Code: 10
Reformatting Track.

The cylinder number is the physical, not the logical, cylinder number of the drive. BIOS error codes are found in Table 5.

TABLE 5
BIOS ERROR CODES

CODE ERROR
01 Bad Command Passed to Disk I/O
02 Address Mark Not Found
04 Requested Sector Not Found
05 Reset Failed
07 Drive Parameter Activity Failed
09 Attempt to DMA Across 64K Boundary
0B Bad Track Flag Detected
10 Bad ECC on Disk Read
11 ECC Corrected Data Error
20 Controller Failure
40 Seek Operation Failed
80 Attached/Failed to Respond
BB Undefined Error Occurred
FF Sense Operation Failed

PARTITION AND FORMAT DESCRIPTION

Logical drive C: is always the first logical unit on drive 0. Logical drive D; is the second logical unit, which could be on drive 0, if large disk partitioning is used.

The disk must now be partitioned for DOS and the format verified.

  1. Insert a copy of DOS that contains "FDISK" and "FORMAT" in floppy A.
  2. Type "FDISK" and Select option 1: Create a DOS partition (See Chapter 4 of DOS Manual).
    If needed, repeat FDISK for drive D using option 5.

  3. Reboot the system.
  4. When complete, type FORMAT C:/S

If needed, repeat for drive D using FORMAT D:
This will create a DOS directory, verify the primary format, and flag any bad (defective) sectors. Since the Adaptec defect handling scheme was used, there will be no bad sectors. From this point on, you can boot from the hard disk, copy files and operate your software applications.

YOU ARE UP AND RUNNING!

ACB-2072-TROUBLESHOOTING CHECKLIST

Probable issues: 1701 error; power-on failure; primary format failures, DOS failure.
Check jumpers on the disk drive, be sure that it is not set for a radial-selected drive.

Check jumpers on controller, especially jumpers E-F, and G-H. Be sure jumper K-L is removed.

Check cables, be sure J2 goes to drive 0, J3 goes to drive 1, and J1 goes to both drives. Be sure that pin 1 on the controller is connected to pin 1 of the drive. If only one drive is being used, connect the cables to the connectors along the edge of the board. Check that jumper I-J is removed.

Check that the terminator on the drive is properly set.

Check that the power supply can support the added current required by the drive. Be sure the +5V and +12V voltages are correct. Verify power requirements with the drive vendor.

If using the user-defined drive values (not the four BIOS tables), be sure that the values are entered correctly.


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